Gawande's argument primarily targets his fellow surgeons. However, what can medical students learn from his text? Can the humble checklist help a medical student succeed in learning the necessary knowledge to succeed in medical school? I doubt any serious study has been done in this area, but intuitively, the answer is yes. As Gawande suggests, try a checklist.
But, what does trying a checklist mean for a student? The checklist is meant to address a systemic problem, not an individual one. Gawande targets fellow surgeons because they run the ORs: they have primary responsibility for the patient's well-being as well as for insuring that the OR runs well. A trainee like a medical student typically simply plays their assigned role. However, therein lies the problem.
By simply playing an assigned role, the student learns from their environment in a haphazard way. Some ORs meticulously run through time-outs and other preparatory procedures; others perfunctorily mention them or even avoid them except for the most necessary ones. However, the student's responsibility ultimately is to the patient, not to maintaining a culture of complacency that he or she may find herself in. By creating and running through their own mental checklist prior to any patient encounter or procedure, you can ensure that you and your team avoid making unnecessary mistakes that may cause the patient harm. Even if you feel powerless on a team or service, your personal checklist can help ensure that you are doing your utmost to serve the patient. Although this may not be the 'heroic' side of medicine, as Gawande notes, the effects can be profound in terms of safety and patient care.
Beyond patient safety, taking the time to craft a checklist can help you break down a complex procedure into simple steps. As you are learning and practicing the procedure, focusing on these simple steps will make it easier to learn the procedure and learn to do it the right way in a safe manner. Gawande emphasizes this in his subtitle: How To Get Things Right. And that's what any student wants to do: get things right.